Carthage

Carthage

According to Appian of Alexandria, Carthage was founded in 814 BC. According to one application, it was founded by the Phoenicians, led by the princess Elsza-Dydonia. She escaped from Tire after her brother, the Pigmalion, murdered her husband, Acherbasa. Dido learned about the crime during a dream vision and decided to set out with the people who wanted to escape the Pigmalion, on a journey. They brought with them many treasures. They crossed Cyprus to northern Africa where they met the Libyans. Phoenicians turned to the landlords to give them as much land as the ox’s skin would cover. Such a request seemed to the Libyan ridiculous and without thinking, the matter agreed on such a deal. Then Didid commanded the ox skin to create one, very thin strap and surround it as large as possible. According to Appian – the place was called Byria (Phoenician – castle, Greek – leather). Around the settlement, a mighty city has grown in time.

Some Greek authors claimed that Carthage was founded by Zorus and Karchedon. These names are derived from the Phoenician name of Tire and the Greek name of Carthage. The Punjabi word itself was derived from the word Poeni, which the Romans called the Phoenicians. The capital city of Carthage, Kart Hadaszt, or New Town, was probably founded in the mid-eighteenth century.

Phenicia

Syria was running through Asia and Egypt. In the third millennium in Syria there were cities inhabited by people of Semitic origin. These cities include: Sidon, Sur, Gub, Sarepta and Ugarit. The Phoenicians, or how they themselves described themselves from the main city – Sydonians mainly dealt with trade and crafts. The location, limited by the proximity of the mountains of Lebanon, descending to the sea itself, did not contribute to the supply of agricultural produce. Abundant in the search for raw materials, cedar trees and metal ores especially in Egypt. In the third millennium Phoenician cities were born. At the head of their steel kings. Initially, however, the Phoenicians did not play a greater role.

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In the second century Phenicia became the supply base of the Egyptian army. Phoenician cities were at that time exposed to the invasions of the Semitic Amorites. The appearance of the so-called. The “seas” caused the destruction of the town of Ugarit, which was not later rebuilt. At that time, other Phoenician cities were also destroyed, but that they were rebuilt on the main trade routes. However, the development of Phoenician cities was hampered by the Philistine neighbors, whose trade and corsairs had caused great damage to the Phoenicians. Phoenicians are the makers of the phonetic alphabet, a system in which only simple sounds of human speech are pronounced. Such alphabet counted 22 characters. Initially, the Phoenicians used cuneiform writing. They sought to simplify it. The invention of the papyrus and the introduction of it instead of clay tablets forced somehow to invent another alphabetical system, to adapt it to the writing material. After the victory of Israel in the Philistines during the days of David, there was a great expansion of Phoenician cities. Expansion has developed in several directions. Phenican contacts with Israel were of great importance. In Israel, the Phoenicians have found markets for their handicrafts in exchange for food products. Weavers developed, the purple cloth from Tire was known, and the sea shells were used for dyeing. Famous and respected were bronze, glass and wood products. The trade revived. It covered more and more areas of the Mediterranean Sea. The wealth flowing to Phenicia was concentrated in the hands of the aristocracy. It liquidated the monarchy. Among other social layers – there was a bad location of skilled craftsmen. Much worse was the situation of small farmers who suffered the greatest losses during the invasion of enemies and left their farms protecting the cities. The situation was deteriorating by the increasing number of slaves, so the possibility of finding work for the free poor was limited. This led to conflicts. This was the main cause of Phoenician colonization, which was directed especially at the western coast of the Mediterranean. Cyprus, which is closest to Phenicia, was colonized by both Phenicia and Greece. In Cyprus there were raw materials, especially tree and copper. The Phoenicians founded the town of Kition. Phenicia directed its colonization effort primarily to the west, where there were unused resources. An important area of ​​Phoenician colonization became the Iberian Peninsula. There were metal ores, especially silver. Particularly important was the Gades colony, founded around 1010 BC. Another area of ​​colonization was northern Africa.

The rise of the Cartagena power
Remains of Antony’s term.

Carthage first strengthened its power at sea by weakening another city of Phoenician Tire, due to the development of the great Eastern (Assyrian, Chaldean and Persian) monasteries, and the Greek expansion in the Western Mediterranean in the 6th century BC and then on the African coast.

Around 550 BC. The Carthaginian commander, Malchus, established the power of Carthage, fighting both against the Libyan people and in Sicily and Sardinia. Suspected of tyranny, he was subsequently overthrown. His successor Magon continued his expansion policy, capturing Cadiz and Málaga, which provided Cartagena with control of the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula and prevented Greek expansion in that area. While another expedition managed to defeat the Strait of Gibraltar and establish a marina on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, parts of the coast of Sicily and Sardinia were captured, and strength gained through the dominance of the other Phoenician colonies in Africa. The Sicilian colonization began around the middle of the 7th century BC, with the Carthaginians succeeding in stopping Greek expansion on the west coast. Sicily seemed completely under Greek rule, but Carthaginians concentrated on a small part of the west coast did not miss the opportunity to attack the Greek colonies to prevent them from being multiplied.

Thus, they managed to stop the Hellenic expeditions of Knidos, who tried to set up a new colony near Lilibeum, near the fortified town of Phoenician on the island of Motya (about 580 BC), and the expedition of Spartan Dorieus, who came to Sicily with a companion group to colonize. West coast, was defeated by Carthaginians allied with the inhabitants of Sagaya around 510 BC Allied with the Etruscans, the Carthaginians declared war on the Fokai, who, despite winning a naval battalion in Alanya (Corsica), had to leave the island. The Etruscans occupied Corsica and the coast of Lazio, while the Carthaginians of Sardinia, Western Sicily and Iberia. Just in the west of Sicily was the first province of Cartagena, called the Greek eparchy. On the island many battles were fought, mainly with the Greeks on the eastern part of the island. At the same time, Malta was also acquired. The rapid expansion of the New Town was halted thanks to the success of tyrant Syracuse, Gelon, who in 480 BC p. He gave the Carthaginians a severe defeat at Himera.

During this period, the ancient pact between Rome and Carthage was divided into zones of influence, according to Polibius, in the first year of the Roman Republic, ie 509 BC.

In his “Acts”, Polybius quotes the text of this treatise. The pact was supposed to last 100 years. The Punjans, while still in war with Pyrrhus, king of Epirus (3rd century BC), supported the Romans with their fleets. For this reason, the Romans had trouble in granting the 264 year old p.n.e. Positive response to the Mammoths, whose call for help against Carthage became the beginning of the First Punic War. Yes Cartagena-Romans treaty of 509 p.n.e. Polibius describes:

So the first arrangement between Lucius Junius of Brutus and the Romans and the Carthaginians of Mark Horatius, the first consuls appointed after the overthrow of the kingdom, who also sacrificed the temple of Jupiter Kapitoliński – twenty-eight years before the Xerxes crossed to Greece. We wrote it down as accurately as possible; For so far is also different in Romans present language from the old, that even the most intractable and this barely after careful study can explain. This is the arrangement: “The following conditions are based on the friendship between the Romans and the allies of the Romans and the Carthaginians and the allies of the Cairoites. Romans and allies of the Romans do not dare to swim beyond Cape Verde unless they are forced by a storm or an enemy. If a person is beaten there, he can not buy anything from him or take anything he needs to repair or sacrifice. And in five days he has to leave. Those who for commercial purposes will come to a foreign land, there is nothing to do there, unless in the presence of a herald or a writer. What will be sold will be sold, but the seller must be guaranteed by the state, if sales are in Libya or in Sardinia. If one of the Romans comes to the part of Sicily that the Carthaginians rule, they have the equal rights of the Romans. The Carthaginians can not harm the people of Ardea, Antia, Laurentum, Circea, Terracina, or even any Latino people, how many of them belong to Rome. If some of them are not, then they should keep away from their cities; But if they did, they have the Romans to keep intact. Let them not raise the fort in Lazio. If they enter the country as enemies, they are not allowed to stay in the country. […] It is clear from this arrangement that they speak of Sardinia and Libya as their own countries; But in Sicily make a clear difference taking into account only the part of the island that is governed by the Carthaginians. Likewise, the Romans take into account only the area of ​​Latin, and they do not mention the rest of Italy because it was not in their power.

– Polybius, Acts, III, 22-23